Books from the Mitchells Apple Country Cooking The Great American Apple Sweet 'n' Slow

“A” Is for Antique Apples

By Patricia B. Mitchell and David L. Mitchell

Virginia apples, ca. 1938

Disappearing Heirlooms

In 1972 James Beard wrote that “a number of the old-fashioned varieties [of apples] we used to know are in short supply or have disappeared from circulation entirely.… The great Gravensteins and Spitzenbergs seem to have vanished.”

Over 17,000 different apple varieties have been recorded, but the modern-day American usually only knows a handful of grocery-store staples, because many of the heirloom apples are too oddly shaped to be picked by machine, too delicate for mass production, or both.

The appeal of the old types is their flavor. From the wine-like Winesap to the coriander-scented Grimes Golden, “antique” apples are meant for a gourmet.

Heirlooms Rediscovered

Many of the old varieties were developed from seeds during the late 1700's and early 1800's, though some date back much farther. Grafting the fruit, a sure way to reproduce a particular variety, enabled early pomologists to perpetuate especially desirable specimens.

James Beard would be glad to know that now more and more nurseries sell heirloom trees, many orchards sell old varieties of fruit, and some historic sites cultivate the heirloom trees. For example, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society has a large collection of antique apple varieties at Old Sturbridge Village, and the Shelburne Museum and the Billings Farm Museum in Vermont boast old-time fruit trees, as does the Landis Valley Museum in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. You can now “sow,” see, and sample the classic apple varieties.

Following is a partial list of old-timey apples. If you readers know of additional varieties, or if you can add descriptions, please e-mail

Note: Ripening times vary, depending upon location and seasonal growing conditions.

Variety Description
Aaron Holt This old southern variety is believed to now be extinct.
Abe Lincoln See Red Astrachan.
Abram (AKA Abrams, Abram's Pippin, Father Abraham, Red Abram) Red-shaded green-yellow in color and medium to small in size, this apple becomes better in storage and is especially good for cider. The flavor is sweet to spicy and the flesh is fine-textured and tender.
Adam's Pearmain (AKA Hanging Pearmain, Norfolk Pippin) Yellow streaks with red on the sun-facing side, and a covering of pale brown russet characterize the appearance of this rich and sugary Herefordshire, England, original. It is ideal for table use.
Albemarle Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Alexander (AKA Emperor Alexander, Kaiser Alexander) This big, yellow-red apple has a uniform shape, and is tender and juicy. Its flavor is slightly acidic, and is best used for cooking purposes. The variety originated in Russia; it was introduced in England in 1817, but the date of its arrival in America is unknown.
All-Over-Red Senator See Senator.
All Summer See Hackworth.
Allum (AKA Hallum, Rockingham Red) This dark-red-skinned variety probably originated in the 1840's or 1850's in Rockingham County, North Carolina. Its flesh is juicy, tender, crisp, and rather tart.
Alpian See Cannon Pearmain.
American See Summer Pearmain.
American Beauty (AKA American Beauty Sterling, Beauty of America, Sterling Beauty) This large, aromatic, dark-red apple ripens in fall. It originated in Sterling, Massachusetts, during the 1850's.
American Blush See Hubbardston.
American Golden Russet See Bullock.
American Pearmain See Summer Pearmain.
American Pippin (AKA Grindstone, Stone)
American Summer Pearmain See Summer Pearmain.
Arkansas Black This dark red, medium-sized fall apple is very firm, crisp, and juicy. Excellent for storage and cider-making. It originated in Benton County, Arkansas, around 1870.
Arkansas Black Twig See Black Twig.
Ashmead's Kernel Ashmead's Kernel is a roundish, medium-sized fall apple. Its greenish-yellow skin usually is covered with a heavy russet. It is very sweet, crisp, juicy, and fragrant. Makes top-notch cider. A physician in Gloucester, England, Dr. Ashmead, developed this variety in the 18th century. It was soon introduced in the United States.
Astrachan, Red See Red Astrachan.
Astrachan, White See White Astrachan.
August Smallish, mostly red apple, tasting a bit like a crabapple, usable in cooking. Originated in Excelsior, Minnesota. Also see Summer King.
Aunt Rachel Medium to large red-striped apple, covered with prominent light dots, ripening from July to early August. Originated in Chatham County, North Carolina. (Data from Masters, Dave, Interim Report on the Collection and Evaluation of Apples Growing in the Piedmont Area of South Carolina, Fort Mill, South Carolina, self-published, 2005; research note provided by Jeremy Leamer).
Aunt Sally
Autumn Pippin See Fall Pippin.
Aurora See Twenty-Ounce.
Autumn Strawberry See Late Strawberry.
Back Creek See Newtown Pippin.
Baker (AKA Baker's Sweet) This medium-to-large golden-yellow apple ripens in late fall or early winter. It is very sweet, firm, and juicy — good for eating fresh and cooking. It originated in New England in the 1800's.
Baker's Ditch An old European variety.
Baker's Sweet See Baker.
Baldwin (AKA Butters, Woodpecker) The Baldwin is a medium to large yellowish or greenish apple mottled with red, and a slightly tart taste; the flesh is crisp, firm, rather tender, and juicy. It is good for dessert and cooking. It ripens in autumn. The seedling originated in Lowell, Massachusetts, around 1740. By 1852, it had become the most widely planted apple of New England. It was the most widely planted apple in the U.S. until the late 1920's.
Baltimore Red See Hoover.
Banana See Winter Banana.
Banks (AKA Banks Gravenstein, Banks Red Gravenstein, Red Gravenstein) A little smaller than Gravenstein, and colored bright red, but otherwise the same.
Beauty of America See American Beauty.
Beauty of the West See Western Beauty.
Beauty, Rome See Rome Beauty.
Beauty, Sterling See American Beauty.
Beauty, Sutton's See Sutton's Beauty.
Beauty, Virginia See Virginia Beauty.
Bedfordshire Foundling
Bellflower See Grimes Golden.
Bellflower, Yellow See Yellow Bellflower.
Bell's Favorite See Sops of Wine.
Belmont Also known as Mama Beam and Gate (see notes from the notes from the Stratton House Inn).
Belpre Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Ben Davis (AKA Carolina Red Streak, Kentucky Pippin, Kentucky Red Streak, New York Pippin, Virginia Pippin) This somewhat soft and juicy red or striped variety keeps very well. It was the most popular winter eating apple in the south central states for many years after the Civil War, though its overall quality is variable and tends to be relatively poor in that region.
Ben Davis, Black See Black Ben Davis.
Ben Davis, Striped See Striped Ben Davis.
Benham (AKA Claiborne, Nat Ewing, Yearry) A tender, medium-sized apple with greenish-yellow skin, sometimes blushed. It originated in Tennessee in the 1880's.
Benoni (AKA Fail-Me-Never) An excellent small to medium-sized dessert apple, with skin colored golden, largely covered by red with stripes of carmine. It originated in Dedham, Massachusetts, and had been introduced by 1832.
Benoni, Coos Bay Late See Coos Bay Late Benoni.
Bentley (AKA Bentley's Sweet) A very sweet and long-keeping apple that probably originated in Virginia in the early 1800's. It is striped red over pale yellow.
Bentley's Sweet
Bethel The red-striped Bethel, the most popular of the Vermont originations, is a large, firm, flavorful winter apple. It keeps well in storage, and some trees still bear fruit after a century.
Bevan's Favorite (AKA Bivins, Early Bevan, Striped June) Medium-size, greenish-yellow-skinned under wide red striping, and crisp. It originated in Salem, New Jersey, in 1842.
Bietigheimer (AKA Red Bietigheimer) This large cooking apple was imported into the U.S. in the 1880's. Skin is light yellow under red striping; flesh is coarse.
Big Hill See Nickajack.
Big Rambo See Western Beauty.
Bismarck (AKA Bismark, Prince Bismarck, Prince Bismark) A large, crisp variety with tough red-striped golden-yellow skin. Better for cooking. Originated in New Zealand; came to the United States via England in the 1890's.
Bivins See Bevan's Favorite.
Black Amish This is an extremely tart apple. Its crisp texture is enjoyed raw or baked.
Black Annie See Black Gilliflower.
Black Apple See Black Jersey and Detroit Red.
Black, Arkansas See Arkansas Black.
Black Ben Davis This late-ripening, medium-to-large fruit is juicy, firm, and moderately crisp. It is said to have originated around 1800 on the Washington Country, Arkansas, farm of a Mr. Black. See also Gano.
Black Coal See Hoover.
Black Gilliflower (AKA Black Annie, Raven's Egg, Red Gilliflower, Sheepnose) Black Gilliflower is a dark red, elongated apple that was discovered in Connecticut in the late 1700's. The sweet, fragrant fruit is good for baking and dessert, and stores well.
Black Hoover See Hoover.
Black Jersey (AKA Black Apple)
Black, Kingston See Kingston Black.
Black Spy See Lawver.
Black, Tobias See Tobias Black.
Black Twig (AKA Arkansas Black Twig, Mammouth Black Twig, Paragon) A mostly-dark-red apple, tart and very firm. It is superb for eating fresh, cooking, and making cider. This medium-to-large-size variety originated in Arkansas, or possibly Tennessee, and was introduced in 1833.
Black Twig, Arkansas See Arkansas Black Twig.
Black Winesap See Kinnaird's Choice.
Blenheim (AKA Blenheim Orange, Blenheim Pippin, Blenheimsrennet, Blooming Orange, Goldreinette von Blenheim, Orange Pippin) An excellent large apple, colored orange under red of varying intensity. It normally does not keep well. The variety originated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, in the year 1740.
Blessing See Twenty-Ounce.
Blooming Orange See Blenheim Orange.
Blue Mountain
Blue Pearmain Dark purple-red, dotted skin with a bluish blush covers this large sweetheart of an apple. It is an old New England variety, introduced in 1833.
Bonum See Magnum Bonum.
Borovinka (AKA Borovinka Angluskaia, Borovitsky, Mushroom) Has been mistaken for Oldenburg. Variable in size, sometimes large; has a bluish bloom over the red that may conceal a yellow “base coat.”
Borovitsky See Borovinka and Oldenburg.
Borowicki See Oldenburg.
Boston Russet No information yet. Also see Roxbury Russet.
Bottled Greening Bottled Greening is said to be so named because workmen hid their alcohol in the hollow of the tree. The tender, green-ish yellow fruit originated in southern Vermont, near the New York border.
Bough See Sweet Bough.
Bow See Sweet Bough.
Bowman, Maggie See Magnum Bonum.
Bramley's Seedling This is the traditional cooking apple of the British Isles. It originated between 1809 and 1813. It is large, with greenish-yellow skin striped with red and brown. The fruit is firm, juicy, and very acidic — a good cooking apple.
Bristol No information yet. Also see Red Canada.
Brown's Golden Sweet See Tolman Sweet.
Brushy Mountain Limbertwig An unusually aromatic fall apple, this variety is dull red, roundish, and quite juicy. A good keeper, it probably originated in the Brushy Mountains of Alexander County in North Carolina.
Buckingham (AKA Fall Queen, Byers Red, Equinetelee, Red Queen) A large, tender apple, mostly red-striped with yellow underneath; it probably originated in Virginia in the 1700's.
Buff (AKA Granny Buff, Mountain Sprout) Especially good for apple butter. It is large in size, and has red-striped-over-yellow skin and sweet flesh.
Bullet (AKA Green Abram, North Carolina Greening) Colored dull red over green, medium-sized, keeps well. It originated in the 1800's.
Bullock (AKA American Golden Russet, Bullock's Pepping, Bullock's Pippin, Golden Russet, Little Pearmain, Pippin Bullok, Sheepnose, Sheep's Nose, Sheep's Snout) A small apple that originated in Burlington County, New Jersey. Has rich, juicy flesh and yellow skin lightly covered by russet. Favorable for table use. Also see Hunt Russet.
Bullock's Pepping
Bullock's Pipping See Bullock and Ewalt.
Buncombe (AKA Bunkum) A medium- to large-sized apple that probably originated in Buncombe County, North Carolina, in the 1800's. Its skin is yellow under dark red.
Burning Green
Butters See Baldwin.
Byers Red See Buckingham.
Cabashea (AKA Cabashie) No information yet. Also see Twenty Ounce Pippin.
Calville Blanc d'Hiver (AKA Caville Blanc d'Hiver) A ribbed, medium-to-large pale green apple with red splashes, this variety is said to have more Vitamin C than an orange. It is a perfect cider or cider vinegar apple. Also excellent for eating raw, it is regarded as the classic French dessert apple. It is tender, sweet, and a good keeper.
Calvin This rather large yellow summer variety is superb for dessert or cooking. Traditionally, it was used for making brandy and cider. It probably originated in Virgina.
Cambellite See White Winter Pearmain.
Campfield A sweet apple that originated in New Jersey in the early 1800's, good for cider.
Canada Red See Red Canada and Roseau.
Canada Reinette (AKA Canadian Reinette, Canadisk Reinet) Good keeper favored for cooking and late eating. Coarse texture, sharp flavor. Known in Europe by 1771 and introduced to North America in the early 1800's. Also see Cheeseboro.
Canadian Reinette
Canadisk Reinet
Cannon Pearmain (AKA Alpian, Green Cannon, Red Cannon) A medium-sized all-purpose apple that yields and stores well. It is crisp, fragrant, and has skin of yellow under some red striping.
Cantrell Shockley Yellow with brown-red and pink markings, this smallish variety is particularly suited for use in making preserves. It is sweet and crisp. The Shockley was known in Georgia in 1854.
Captain See Red Astrachan.
Carolina See Nickajack and White Juneating.
Carolina Red June (AKA Carolina Red, Red June) A small apple with red-over-yellow colored skin, this sprightly-flavored, crisp, and juicy summer apple is quite versatile. It originated in North Carolina or Tennessee, and was described in print in 1848.
Carolina Horse See Horse.
Carolina Red Streak See Ben Davis.
Caroline See Nickajack and White Juneating.
Carpentin (AKA Carnation) This old variety was introduced in 1798 in the U.S., but seems to have died out. It originated in the German-French region along the Rhine River. It was russet and red in color.
Carter's Blue (AKA Lady Fitzpatrick, Patton)
Cathead (Cathead Greening, Catshead, Cat's Head, Round Cathead) A large old European variety best for cooking and drying. Also see Cheeseboro and Fall Pippin.
Catshead Beaufin See Norfolk Beefing.
Caville Blanc d'Hiver See Calville Blanc d'Hiver.
Cayuga Red Pippin See Twenty-Ounce.
Cayuga Red Streak See Twenty-Ounce.
Champlain ( AKA Nyack, Nyack Pippin, Summer Pippin, Vermont) This apple's origin is uncertain, but it seems likely that it came from Vermont. It was introduced in 1850. It was prized for its flavor, and valued as an excellent cooking apple. The yellow fruits are large, tender, and juicy, and they ripen over a long season.
Charlamowsky See Oldenburg.
Cheeseboro (AKA Canada Reinette, Cathead)
Chenango Strawberry (AKA Early Sugar Loaf, Jackson, Sherwood's Favorite) This is a very aromatic summer apple, excellent both raw and for cooking. It is colored pale green with red stripes or blush. It originated in the Northeast, perhaps in Chenango County, New York, around 1854. The conical fruit is firm, but tender and juicy. It should be picked only when fully ripe and does not keep long.
Chimney Apple See Fameuse.
Christmas Apple See Lady.
Cider See Smith's Cider.
Claiborne See Benham.
Clark's Pearmain
Claygate Pearmain Brown and crimson in color, crisp and sugary, this winter apple hails from Surrey, England, where it is known to have grown before 1820. It keeps well.
Codlin (AKA Codling) The Codlin was “a favorite apple in England for pies and stewing;” it was also cultivated in the United States.
Cobbett's Fall See Fall Pippin and White Spanish Reinette.
Cobbett's Fall Pippin
Coffey Seedling
Cole's Quince This old Maine summer apple was introduced in 1849. It is a large, yellow, ribbed variety, with juicy, firm flesh, and a quince-like aroma and taste.
Concombre Ancien See Fall Pippin and White Spanish Reinette.
Cooke's Seedling This green apple with red stripes was a 19th-century California variety which ripened in the fall. It seems to have died out.
Cooper (AKA Seek-No-Further)
Coos Bay Late Benoni This apple originated in Dedham, Massachusetts, in 1830, but eventually made its way to the Coos Bay area of Oregon. It ripens very late, and is regarded as a commendable home-orchard apple.
Cornish Gilliflower This English variety dates from the 18th or possibly 17th century. It is not a lovely specimen, normally being dull green, brownish red, and webbed with russet, but it has a sprightly, clove-like fragrance.
Cotton Sweet
Court-Pendu Plat (AKA Wise) The skin of this flat-sided, light russet apple has yellow, orange, or rose markings. The firm, tasty variety was known in the 16th century.
Cowsnout An old European variety.
Cox Orange (AKA Cox Orange Pippin, Cox's Orange Pippin) The Cox Orange originated in England about 1830, and is popular there as well as in the U.S. The delicately fragrant fall apples are tender and juicy, outstanding eaten raw or used for cooking or cider. Their skin is dark yellow under orange and red striping and washing.
Cox Orange Pippin
Cox's Orange Pippin
Crab, Hewes See Hewes Crab.
Crab, Huge's See Virginia Cider.
Crooked Reds
Crow Egg (AKA Crow's Egg)
Crow's Egg
Dabinett A small, aromatic English cider apple.
David, King See King David.
Delaware White See Lawver.
Detroit See Detroit and Ortley.
Detroit Red (AKA Black Apple, Detroit)
Deiltz See Mann.
Diltz See Mann.
Dixie See Shockley.
Dixon, Sweet See Sweet Dixon.
Doctor A yellow fall variety, this crisp apple is highlighted with crimson.
Duchess See Oldenburg.
Duchess of Oldenburg
Duchess of Oldenburgh
Dutchess of Oldenburg
Dutchess of Oldenburgh
Dula Beauty (AKA Dula)
Dutch Greening See Peck's Pleasant.
Dyer See Pomme Royale.
Early Bevan See Bevan's Favorite.
Early Bough See Sweet Bough.
Early Bow See Sweet Bough.
Early Congress See Gravenstein.
Early Harvest (AKA Yellow Harvest, Yellow June, Yellow Juneating) This yellow fall apple is excellent for cooking or eating out of hand.
Early Joe
Early Redbird
Early Strawberry (AKA Red Juneating, Red Strawberry, Tennessee Early Red)
Early Striped Juneating See Margaret.
Early Sugar Loaf See Chenango Strawberry.
Early Transparent See Yellow Transparent.
Egg Top (AKA Sheepnose)
Egremont Russet Small, round, golden-brown russet with black markings or spots, this rich and tasty variety originated in England. It was introduced in the U.S. in 1880.
Emperor Alexander See Alexander.
English Strawberry See Late Strawberry.
Equinetelee See Buckingham
Esopus Spitzenburg (AKA Esopus Spitzenberg, Esopus Spitzenburgh, Spitzenberg, Spitzenburg, True Spitzenburg) A medium to large, orangey-red, oblong fruit that is crisp, firm, juicy, somewhat tender, sweet, and spicy, perfect to eat out of hand (and also wonderful cooked). The flavor is akin to pineapple, the fragrance is, when cut, like cinnamon. It was the favorite apple of Thomas Jefferson. This fall variety originated in New York.
Evening Party
Ewalt (AKA Bullock's Pippin)
Fail-Me-Never See Benoni.
Fallawater (AKA Molly Whopper, Pound, Tulpehocken) The mammoth green Fallawater rates as an exceptional dessert apple and is good cooked. It is a fine drying apple and stores well, too. It was a favorite in the 19th century in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, where it originated.
Fall Bellflower See Yellow Bellflower.
Fall Pippin (AKA Autumn Pippin, Cathead, Cobbett's Fall, Cobbett's Fall Pippin, Concombre Ancien, Holland Pippin, Pound Pippin) This large yellow winter apple is enjoyable eaten raw or used in cooking. It has been confused with the Holland Pippin, but ripens later and is of better quality.
Fall Queen See Buckingham and Haas.
Fall Russet A remarkably flavorful small apple, this russet-colored variety was introduced in 1875. It might have originated in Michigan.
Fall Strawberry See Late Strawberry.
Fall Vandevere See Vandevere.
Fall Wine (AKA Wine) This old New England fall variety is yellow with a red blush. It is tender, sweet, and juicy.
Fameuse (AKA Chimney Apple, Pomme de Neige, Red American, Royal Snow, Snow) The small-to-medium size red Fameuse was being cultivated in Canada by the early 1600's, probably originating from French seed. It was introduced in Vermont around 1700. The white-fleshed, crimson-veined fruit is tender, aromatic, and juicy, best for raw eating.
Father Abraham See Abram.
Faust's Winter (AKA Faust, Foust)
Fired Sweet
Flat Spitzenburg See Thompkins County King.
Flory See Winter Banana.
French Longtail A cider apple.
French Pippin See also Newark Pippin.
Gano (AKA Black Ben Davis) Thought to be from a variant bud graft of the Ben Davis.
Gate Also known as Mama Beam and Belmont (see notes from the notes from the Stratton House Inn).
Genet See Ginet.
Gennetting See Ginet and White Juneating.
Gibbon's Smokehouse See Vandevere.
Gilliflower, Black See Black Gilliflower.
Gilliflower, Cornish See Cornish Gilliflower.
Gilliflower, Red See Black Gilliflower.
Ginet (AKA Genet, Geneton, Geniton, Gennetin, Genneting, Gennetting, Indiana Jannetting, Janet, Janetting, Jefferson Pippin, Jenetings, Jeniton, Jenitons, Jennett, Jennette, Jenniton, Missouri Janet, Never Fail, Neverfail, Rall's Genet, Ralls Genet, Raule Jannet, Raule's Genet, Raule's Janet, Raule's Janett, Raule's Janette, Raule's Jannet, Raule's Jannette, Raule's Jannetting, Raule's Jennetting, Raul's Gennetting, Rawle's Genet, Rawle's Janet, Rawle's Janett, Rawle's Jannet, Rawle's Jennet, Rawle's Jenneting, Rawle's Jennette, Rawl's Janet, Red Neverfail, Rock Remain, Rockremain, Rock Rimmon, Rockrimmon, Royal Janette, Winter Genneting, Winter Jannetting, Yellow Jannett, Yellow Jannette) This apple was first propagated in the United States from the farm of Caleb Ralls in Amherst County, Virginia. Ralls may have worked with clippings brought from France by Edmund Charles Genet, French ambassador to this country, at the urging of then–Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, around 1800. Medium-sized yellow apple, covered and striped in varying shades of pink and red. Crisp, juicy, and tender.
Gloria Mundi
Golden Pippin See Ortley.
Golden, Grimes See Grimes Golden.
Golden Noble A big round beauty with a high Vitamin C content, this good cooking apple originated in England, and was introduced here in 1820.
Golden Russet (AKA English Golden Russet) Golden Russet is believed to be one of the oldest apple varieties still in cultivation. Its flesh is crisp and flavorful, with high sugar content, suitable for dessert, cooking, and cider. The skin varies, but tends to be yellow under a rough bronze russet. Keeps well. See also Bullock.
Golden Russet, Jung's Strain See Jung's Strain Golden Russet.
Golden Sweet A light yellow, medium-to-large, very sweet variety, this apple is great for cider, sauce, and other cooking. It originated in Connecticut, and was introduced in 1832.
Goldreinette von Blenheim See Blenheim.
Goldenwilding (AKA Gold Wildings) The Goldenwilding was a yellow, medium-sized apple with a sweet acid flavor. It originated in North Carolina.
Grand Sachem
Graniwinkle A late-ripening New Jersey cider apple, this variety is also good for cooking. It was described in 1817 in Coxe's Cultivation of Fruit Trees.
Granny Buff See Buff.
Granny Smith Mrs. Maria Smith of New South Wales, Australia, nurtured the first Granny Smith seedling in the mid-1800's. This round, green apple is tart, firm, and juicy — great for snacking, good for baking. Available fresh October through June.
Gravenstein (AKA Early Congress, Gravensteiner) Gravenstein was brought from Germany in 1790, though it originated in Italy in the 1600's. This all-purpose apple is crisp, juicy, and tart, superb both for cooking and eating fresh. The medium to large fruit is predominately yellow with areas of green and red. In spite of James Beard's comment of despair over the lost Gravensteins (see top of this page), it is reported that “some still survive as orchards here in Northern California” (Shirley Sachsen, July 22, 2003).
Gray Apple See Pomme Grise.
Greasy Pippin See Ortley.
Green Abram See Bullet.
Green Cannon See Cannon Pearmain.
Green Cheese
Green, Lewis See Lewis Green.
Green Newtown Pippin See Newtown Pippin and Rhode Island Greening.
Green Ohio Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Green Winter Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Green Skin
Greening An old European variety, this green-colored fall apple is good for cooking.
Greening, Dutch See Peck's Pleasant.
Greening, Northwest See Northwest Greening.
Greening, Rhode Island See Rhode Island Greening.
Green Pippin
Griffin's Pearmain See White Winter Pearmain.
Grimes Golden (AKA Bellflower [in Arkansas], Grimes Golden Pippin) A man in what is now Brook County, West Virginia, found the first Grimes Golden growing wild there sometime before 1800. The yellow-gold, medium-sized apples are crisp and juicy with a spicy taste. They are excellent eaten fresh, tops for cider, frying, and baking, and smell good, too.
Grindstone See American Pippin.
Grizzle Strain Shockley Like the Cantrell Shockley, but larger.
Haas (AKA Fall Queen, Hoss, Maryland Queen)
Hackworth (AKA All Summer)
Hanging Pearmain See Adam's Pearmain.
Harry Masters Jersey (AKA Port Wine)
Hauser Strain Rambo Greenish yellow with red stripes, this summer apple is good for pies, jelly, and drying. The variety dates to the late 1500's.
Hawkeye Delicious
Hawley Introduced in 1750, this large gold and green apple sometimes blushes dark red or brownish. It is juicy and tender. Usually ripens in September and October.
Hazen Hazen has coarse, sweet flesh. It originated on the farm of J. Erwin Lord, of Pompanoosuc, Vermont.
Henry Clay This midseason, yellow and red variety was known by the beginning of the 20th century.
Henry Sweet See Henry Sweet.
Hewes Crab This apple variety has a high sugar content, desirable for cider fermentation, and it is juicy, “like squeezing a wet sponge.”
Hibernal A gigantic, yellow, striped apple, this lip-puckering old Russian variety is good for drying.
Hightop Sweet (AKA Hightop Sweeting, Sweet June, Yellow Sweet June)
Hog Sweet An old variety from the mountains of north Georgia.
Holland Pippin (AKA Fall Pippin, Summer Pippin) An early-ripening apple fit only for cooking. See also Fall Pippin.
Holland's Red Winter See Winesap.
Hollow Log
Hominy See Sops of Wine.
Honey Cider This old variety was rediscovered in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. It is flat-sided; light green touched with russet; crisp, sweet, and juicy. Originally it was used as a blending apple in cider making because of its sweetness.
Honeydew Grindstone See Vandervere.
Hoover (AKA Baltimore Red, Black Coal, Black Hoover, Thunderbolt, Watauga, Welcome) The skin of the big, rounded Hoover is dark red over yellow, with russet patches. The flesh is firm, fairly juicy, tasty, and not too acidic. This fall variety is, like many of the heirloom apples, a good keeper.
Horse (AKA Carolina Horse, Old Fashion Horse, Yellow Horse) Once extraordinarily popular in the South for fresh eating, cooking, drying, and cider- and vinegar-making, the Horse is thought to have originated in Nash County, North Carolina, in the 1800's. The fruit is medium to large and slightly ribbed, with thick, golden-yellow skin. The flesh is firm, yellow, and juicy. The flavor is quite tart until the fruit is fully ripe. The tree is considered a late bloomer, prolific producer, and early bearer, with fruit ripening July to August.
Horse Bud See Shockley.
Howee's Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Hubbardston (AKA American Blush, Hubbardston Nonesuch, Hubbardston's Nonesuch, Hubbardston's Pippin, John May, Nonesuch, Red Winter Nonsuch) This is a sweet, juicy, crisp, and fragrant variety which originated in Massachusetts in the early 1800's. It is a medium-to-large-size apple, usually yellow under a reddish blush.
Huge's Crab See Virginia Cider.
Hunt Russet (AKA Bullock) An old, rare variety, which can keep in root cellars over a year.
Hunt's Fine Green Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Indiana Jannetting See Ginet.
Irish Peach Small and green with indistinct red stripes, the Irish Peach has lots of flavor and a good smell. It is juicy and crisp, and lends itself well to baking. This midsummer variety originated in Ireland, and was introduced here in 1820.
Irish Russet See Young.
Itzstedter Apfel (AKA Prunterkroger) Round, delicate yellow with a light pink blush, this fall dessert apple has a sweet-tart taste with a whisper of almond. It came from Itzstedt, a village near Hamburg, and probably originated in the late 19th century.
Jackson See Chenango Strawberry.
Jackson Red See Nickajack.
Jake's Seedling
James River See Limbertwig and Willow.
Janet See Ginet.
Jefferis This juicy, red-striped variety has a pear-like flavor. It is crisp but tender. In 1848 the variety was awarded the best seedling apple exhibited by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. It originated on Isaac Jefferis' farm in Chester County, Pennsylvania.
Jefferson Pippin See Ginet.
Jenneting See White Juneating.
Jenniton See Ginet.
Jewett Red (AKA Jewett's Fine Red, Nodhead) This late fall variety is an old New Hampshire and Maine apple. It is very dark crimson with deep red stripes, yellow specks, and a bluish cast.
Joaneting See White Juneating.
Joaneting, White
John May See Hubbardston.
Johnson's Fine Winter See York Imperial.
Jonathan (AKA Johnathan, King Philip, Philip Rick, Ulster Seedling) This fragrant medium-sized, bright-red, yellow-kissed round apple is decidedly tart, firm, and juicy, with a tang; good for snacks and pies, and outstanding for cider. It is available September to April. The variety originated in Woodstock, New York.
Juneating, Red See Early Strawberry.
Juneating, Yellow See Early Harvest.
Juneating, White See White Juneating.
June, Carolina Red See Carolina Red June.
June, Red See Carolina Red June.
June, Striped See Striped June.
June, Yellow See Early Harvest.
Jung's Strain Golden Russet Similar to Golden Russet.
Kaiser Alexander See Alexander.
Kennard See Kinnaird's Choice.
Kentucky Pippin See Ben Davis.
Kentucky Red Streak See Ben Davis.
Kentucky Summer Queen See Summer King.
Kerry Pippin (AKA Kerry, Kerry Irish Pippin) This late summer apple, a small, flavorful, orange-yellow variety, is crisp, crunchy, and hard. It originated in Ireland.
King See Summer King and Thompkins County King.
King David This tree was first found in Washington County, Arkansas, in 1893. The medium-size apple has light green coloring overshadowed by a bold dark red. Its tangy flavor resembles that of a Winesap, and it is firm, crisp, and juicy. Excellent all-purpose apple.
King Luscious (AKA King Lush) A dark-red apple discovered in Hendersonville, North Carolina, in 1935, and patented by William Dalton. “The King Lush, as many called it, was a cross between the older Stayman and the Wolf River. It's still found in many commercial orchards in Hendersonville. I sold it for many years. I found it to be bland, watery, not a very good keeper, but nice color.”—Charlie Lytle, Sylva, North Carolina
King Philip See Jonathan.
King, Santa Clara See Skinner's Seedling.
King Solomon (AKA Solomon)
Kingston Black
King, Thompkins See Thompkins County King.
King, Thompkins County See Thompkins County King.
Kinnaird's Choice (AKA Black Winesap, Kennard, Kinnard, Kinnaird, Kinnaird's Favorite, Red Winter Cluster) A yellow apple with a red blush, this crisp variety is first-rate for dessert or cider. It was once grown throughout northern Georgia.
Knobbed Russet (AKA Knobby Russet) This variety actually has a knobby surface and a skin of many colors: yellow, green, red, gray, and/or black russet might appear on the peel. It is tasty, sugary, and crisp. The apple originated in Sussex, England, and was introduced in 1819.
Knotty Pea See Notley Pea No. 1.
Ladies Sweet See Sweet Winesap.
Lady (AKA Lady Sweet, Christmas Apple, Pomme d'Api) These miniature red and yellow aromatic apples often grace Dellia Robbia holiday wreaths. They are lovely for dessert, and make good cider apples. The variety dates back to the Roman Empire.
Lady Blush See Maiden Blush.
Lady Finger (AKA Sheepnose)
Lady Fitzpatrick See Carter's Blue.
Lady Washington See Yellow Bellflower.
Lamb Abbey Pearmain (AKA Lamb Abbey) A small, red-streaked, crisp fall apple, this variety is juicy with the taste of sugar. It is an old English apple that came from a Newtown Pippin imported from America. It was introduced in 1804.
Landon Landon has a mild flavor. A rather “shy bearer” but a good keeper, it originated on the farm of Buel Landon, of South Hero, Vermont.
Large Newtown Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Large Winter Red See Wine.
Large Yellow Bough See Sweet Bough.
Late Strawberry (AKA Autumn Strawberry, English Strawberry, Fall Strawberry, Strawberry) Yellow-striped with red splashes, this small-to-medium-sized apple has a good aroma, juiciness, crispness, and tenderness. The variety originated in Aurora, New York, and was first described in 1848.
Lawver (AKA Black Spy, Delaware White, Lawyer, Louver)
Leather Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Lewis Green
Limbertwig (AKA James River) A drab red flush covers the greenish-yellow skin of this good all-purpose fall apple. It is especially choice for cider making. The strain originated in northern Georgia.
Limbertwig, Brushy Mountain See Brushy Mountain Limbertwig.
Limbertwig, Old-Fashioned See Old-Fashioned Limbertwig.
Limbertwig, Red See Red Limbertwig.
Limbertwig, Royal See Royal Limbertwig.
Limbertwig, Summer See Summer Limbertwig.
Little Bennie
Little Pearmain See Bullock.
Livland Raspberry (AKA Lowland Raspberry) Red stripes on a creamy backdrop make this medium-to-large round apple very pretty. It is sweet and gentle in flavor. The variety is an old one from Russia.
Lobo This old-time, big red apple was derived from the McIntosh. It ripens rather early in the season.
Lodi The Lodi is an excellent applesauce apple and also favored for use in pies. Typically harvested in mid-July, it is a medium-sized, yellow-green apple, with soft, white flesh and a sweet-tart flavor.
Long Red Pearmain (AKA Sheepnose)
Lord's Seedling James S. Lord of Linden, New York, found this seedling in his Baldwin apple orchard. The late summer variety was introduced in 1892.
Lowland Raspberry See Livland Raspberry.
Lubsk Queen (AKA Lubsk Reinette) A shiny white skin kissed with red and pink blushes covers this medium-to-large beauty. Firm, tart, and juicy, Lubsk Queen is ideal for eating out-of-hand, and for sauce and pies. It is an old Russian strain which was introduced in Canada in the latter part of the 19th century.
Lugar Red
Luscious, King See King Luscious.
Lyman's Large Summer (AKA Lyman's Large) A big apple, either green or yellow, this tangy, crisp, juicy variety is a refreshing choice for dessert or cooking.
Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet See Pumpkin Sweet.
Magnum Bonum (AKA Bona, Bonum, Maggie Bowman, Magna Bonum, Red Bonum) Medium or sometimes large, this fall apple is regarded as a good dessert apple. It is yellow-covered with light red and striped with darker red, and also has white or russet dots. The fruit is juicy, tender, mildly subacidic, and aromatic. The variety was recorded in 1854.
Magog Magog has green-yellow skin with red stripes. The fruit is juicy, good for cooking. It originated on the farm of William Warren, of Newport, and was introduced by Dr. T. H. Hoskins.
Maiden Blush (AKA Maiden's Blush, Lady Blush, Red Cheek) A New Jersey native, Maiden Blush became well known in the early 1800's. The apples, which ripen in September, are ideal for cooking and drying, with flesh that is juicy and sweet. The skin is light yellow with a red blush.
Malinda Malinda was valued for its large size and hardiness. It was widely grown for a short time in the upper Midwest as well as in New England, but it originated in Orange County, Vermont. The apple is yellow-skinned with a pink blush.
Mama Beam Also known as Gate and Belmont (see notes from the notes from the Stratton House Inn).
Mammouth Black Twig See Black Twig.
Mann (AKA Diltz, Deiltz)
Margaret (AKA Early Margaret, Early Striped Juneating, Striped June)
Margil Small to medium in size, this highly flavored and scented fall variety is firm with orangey-red skin, dark red stripes, and one russeted side. It might have originated in France. It was introduced in this country in 1750.
Marietta Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Marigold (AKA Marigold Pippin, Marygold, Orange Pippin) Also see Orange Pippin.
Marigold Pippin See Marigold and Orange Pippin.
Maryland Red Streak See Redstreak.
Maryland Queen See Haas.
May See White Juneating.
May Pippin
McIntosh (AKA McIntosh Red) In 1868, Dr. T. H. Hoskins in Newport Center, Vermont, brought from Dundela, Ontario, the first McIntosh ever planted in the United States. (It originated about 1811.) It is the classic, all-purpose apple — sweet-tart, juicy, and crisply tender, with a nice spicy taste, and medium to large in size. The skin is red with touches of green. McIntosh is available September to June.
McLellan The McLellan is a late fall apple with pale straw-colored skin, masked with red. This good keeper originated in Woodstock, Connecticut, and was introduced in 1780.
Medaille d'Or
Missouri Janet See Ginet.
Moile An old cider apple.
Molly Whopper See Fallawater.
Mother (AKA American Mother, Gardener's, Queen Anne) Now popular in England, this bright red and yellow dessert apple is seldom seen anymore in this country, although it originated in Massachusetts, and was introduced in 1840. Medium to large in size, it is juicy, fragrant, and has an unusual balsamic, sweet-acidic flavor.
Mountain Boomer (AKA Mount Boomer)
Mountain Sprout See Buff.
Mushroom See Mushroom.
Muster A small, crisp, and very sweet early fall apple, the Muster is orangey-red or pink with gray or brown spots.
Nat Ewing See Benham.
Never Fail See Ginet.
Newark Pippin (AKA French Pippin, Yellow Pippin)
Newell's Winter (AKA Newell) A yellow-green late fall apple covered with tiny green or black specks, this variety is crisp, firm, and juicy. It originated in Wisconsin, and was introduced in 1850.
Newtown Pippin (AKA Albemarle Pippin, Back Creek, Green Newtown Pippin, Green Ohio Pippin, Green Winter Pippin, Hunt's Fine Green Pippin, Large Newtown Pippin, New York Pippin, Petersburg Pippin, Petersburgh Pippin, Pippin, Virginia Pippin, Yellow Newtown, Yellow Newtown Pippin) The squat, medium-sized, yellowish-green fall Newtown Pippin has a pine-like tartness, crisp texture, and inviting fragrance. A good candidate for eating fresh or for making cider. It originated in Newtown, Long Island, in the early 1700's.
Newtown Spitzenburg (AKA Newtown Spitzemberg, Newtown Spitzenberg, Newtown Spitzenbergh, Newtown Spitzenburgh This multicolored late-ripening apple displays a skin of greenish-yellow blushed with orangey-red and marked with russet dots and red stripes. It is sweet, firm, and tasty. The variety was first recorded in 1817.
New York
New York Pippin See Ben Davis and Newtown Pippin.
Nickajack (AKA Big Hill, Carolina, Caroline, Jackson Red, Pound, Summerour, Winter Horse)
Nodhead See Jewett Red
Nonesuch See Hubbardston.
Nonpareil, Ohio See Ohio Nonpareil.
Nonpareil, Old See Old Nonpareil.
Nonpareil, Ross See Ross Nonpareil.
Nonsuch See Red Canada.
Norfolk Beefing (AKA Catshead Beaufin, Norfolk Beaufin)
Norfolk Pippin See Adam's Pearmain.
North Carolina Greening See Bullet.
Northern Spy (AKA Northern Spice, Red Northern Spy, Red Spy, Spy) A big, greenish-yellow fruit marked with pink-red and russet, the Northern Spy is suitable for all uses except drying. It is very tender, crisp, juicy, aromatic, and and tart. An excellent keeper, a seedling of this variety was discovered by Herman Chapin in East Bloomfield, New York, around 1800.
Northern Sweet Northern Sweet is sweet and tender. A fall ripener, it has yellow skin with a red blush. It originated in Chittenden County, Vermont.
Northstate King Grown in New York prior to 1842.
Northwest Greening
Notley Pea No. 1 (AKA Knotty Pea, Notly Pippin No. 1)
Nyack See Champlain.
Nyack Pippin
Ohio Beauty See Western Beauty.
Ohio Nonpareil Big green and yellow early fall apple with juicy, firm, crisp flesh. This pleasant-tasting variety was discovered in Massilon, Ohio, prior to 1850.
Ohio Pippin (AKA Shannon)
Oldenburg (AKA Borovitsky, Borowicki, Charlamowsky, Duchess, Duchess of Oldenburg, Duchess of Oldenburgh, Dutchess, Dutchess of Oldenburg, Dutchess of Oldenburgh, Oldenburgh) A medium-large–sized apple good for cooking purposes, being juicy and somewhat acidic. It is colored mostly red, over pale to greenish yellow. It originated in Russia, and was brought to the United States from England in 1835.
Old-Fashioned Limbertwig
Old-Fashioned Winesap See Winesap.
Old Fashion Horse See Horse.
Old Nonpareil A small late fall apple, this variety has streaks and spots of brown russet, a faint orange flush, and yellowish-green skin. It is tender, crisp, and delicious. It was described by 17th century French writers, and probably dates back to the days of Queen Elizabeth.
Old Nonsuch See Red Canada.
Old Virginia Winesap See Virginia Winesap.
Oliver See Senator.
Oliver's Red See Senator.
Opalescent This big, primarily dark red beauty is a late fall variety. It is juicy, firm, and pleasant in flavor. Opalescent was introduced in 1880.
Orange Pippin (AKA Marigold, Marigold Pippin, Marygold) Also see Blenheim and Marigold.
Orleans (AKA Orleans Reinette) Greenish-yellow with a russet webbing, this crisp apple has a nutty, full flavor. It originated in France, and was introduced in 1776.
Ortley (AKA Detroit, Golden Pippin, Greasy Pippin, Warren Pippin, White Bellflower, White Detroit, Woolman's Long Pippin, Yellow Pippin) This medium-size, conical, light-green-yellow variety ripens in late fall. It was introduced in 1825, originating in New Jersey.
Ox Eye See Vandevere.
Ox Eye Striped
Palouse Introduced in 1879, this late summer yellow fruit is highlighted with crimson and red. It smells lovely; the flesh is crisp, firm, juicy, and not very acidic.
Paradise Sweet A big round green sweet variety, the apple ripens late in the season. It was believed to have originated in Pennsylvania, and was mentioned by rural architect A. J. Downing in 1845.
Paragon See Black Twig.
Park's Pippin
Peach This dessert apple is yellow with a red blush. It ripens in the fall. The tree originated in Russia.
Peach, Irish See Irish Peach.
Pearmain, Adam's See Adam's Pearmain.
Pearmain, American See Summer Pearmain.
Pearmain, American Summer See Summer Pearmain.
Pearmain, Blue See Blue Pearmain.
Pearmain, Clark's See Clark's Pearmain.
Pearmain, Claygate See Claygate Pearmain.
Pearmaine, Sommer See Sommer Pearmaine.
Pearmain, Hanging See Adam's Pearmain.
Pearmain, Lamb Abbey See Lamb Abbey Pearmain.
Pearmain, Summer See Summer Pearmain.
Pearmain, White Winter See White Winter Pearmain.
Pearmain, Winter See White Winter Pearmain.
Peck's Pleasant (AKA Dutch Greening, Peck, Peck Pleasant, Watts Apple)
Petersburg Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Petersburgh Pippin
Pewaukee Medium to large in size, this yellow or orangey red variety was first recorded in 1870. It is rather firm, yet tender.
Philip Rick See Jonathan.
Pilot (AKA Virginia Pilot)
Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Pippin, Abram's See Abram.
Pippin, Albemarle See Newtown Pippin.
Pippin, Autumn See Fall Pippin.
Pippin, Blenheim See Blenheim.
Pippin, Bullock See Bullock.
Pippin Bullok
Pippin, Cayuga Red See Twenty-Ounce.
Pippin, Cayuga Streak
Pippin, Cox Orange See Cox Orange Pippin.
Pippin, Fall See Fall Pippin and Holland Pippin.
Pippin, Golden See Ortley.
Pippin, Greasy See Ortley.
Pippin, Green Newtown See Newtown Pippin.
Pippin, Green Ohio
Pippin, Green Winter
Pippin, Grimes Golden See Grimes Golden Pippin.
Pippin, Holland See Fall Pippin and Holland Pippin.
Pippin, Hunt's Fine Green See Newtown Pippin.
Pippin, Large Newtown
Pippin, Marigold See Marigold and Orange Pippin.
Pippin, May See May.
Pippin, New York See Newtown Pippin.
Pippin, Norfolk See Adam's Pearmain.
Pippin, Nyack See Champlain.
Pippin, Ohio See Ohio Pippin.
Pippin, Orange See Marigold and Orange Pippin.
Pippin, Pound See Fall Pippin.
Pippin, Redtown See Redtown Pippin.
Pippin, St. Edmunds See St. Edmunds Pippin.
Pippin, Tobias See Tobias Pippin.
Pippin, Travers See Ribston.
Pippin, Vermont See Tinmouth.
Pippin, Virginia See Ben Davis and Newtown Pippin.
Pippin, Woolman's Long See Ortley.
Pippin, Yellow See Newark Pippin.
Pippin, Yellow Newtown See Newtown Pippin and Ortley.
Pitmaston Pineapple (AKA Pitmaston Pine) A conical, warm yellow, russeted fall apple, this small pleasure is juicy, and sweet as sugar. It originated in England.
Polly Eades
Pome Water (AKA Pommewater) An old European variety.
Pomme d'Api See Lady.
Pomme de Neige See Fameuse.
Pomme Grise (AKA Gray Apple, Grise, Pomme Gris)
Pomme Grise, Swayzie See Swayzie.
Pomme Royale (AKA Dyer) Greenish-yellow veined with russet, this spicy variety is believed to have been brought to Rhode Island by French Huguenot settlers. It was introduced in 1685.
Popular Bluff See Smith's Cider.
Porter Clean yellow, conical in shape, and tender, this is a superior all-purpose variety. It was introduced in 1840.
Port Wine See Harry Masters Jersey.
Pound See Fallawater and Nickajack.
Pound Pippin See Fall Pippin.
Pound Sweet See Pumpkin Sweet.
Primate Medium to large, this pale green summer variety is enjoyable to eat out-of-hand, because it is crisp and juicy. It originated in Onondaga County, New York, and was introduced in 1840.
Prince Bismarck See Bismarck.
Prince Bismark
Prunterkroger See Itzstedter Apfel.
Pumpkin Sweet (AKA Lyman's Pumpkin Sweet, Pound Sweet, Sweet Pumpkin, Vermont Sweet) This greenish-white early winter sweetie originated in Manchester, Connecticut. It is useful for baking and canning.
Putnam Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Queen Anne See Mother.
Queen, Fall See Buckingham.
Queening (AKA Queen of Apples) An old European variety.
Queen, Lubsk See Lubsk Queen.
Queen, Red See Buckingham.
Quince, Cole's See Cole's Quince.
Rall's Janet See Ginet.
Ralls Janet
Rambo (AKA Seek-No-Further) Introduced into America ca. 1640 by Swedish settler Peter Gunnarsson Rambo (research note provided by Herbert Rambo), the Rambo was later known as Johnny Appleseed's (John Chapman's) favorite apple.
Rambo, Hauser Strain See Hauser Strain Rambo.
Rambo, Summer See Summer Rambo.
Raspberry, Livland See Livland Raspberry.
Raspberry, Lowland See Livland Raspberry.
Rattle Core
Raule Jannet See Ginet.
Raule's Genet
Raule's Janet
Raule's Janett
Raule's Janette
Raule's Jannet
Raule's Jannette
Raule's Jannetting
Raule's Jennetting
Raul's Gennetting
Rawle's Genet
Rawle's Janet
Rawle's Janett
Rawle's Jannet
Rawle's Jennet
Rawle's Jenneting
Rawle's Jennette
Rawl's Janet
Raven's Egg See Black Gilliflower.
Rebel A good choice for cider.
Red Abram See Abram.
Red American See Fameuse.
Red Ashmore See Red Astrachan.
Red Astrachan (AKA Abe Lincoln, Captain, Red Ashmore) This aromatic red summer apple came from Russia. It is good for cooking and eating out-of-hand.
Red, Baltimore See Hoover.
Red Bietigheimer See Bietigheimer.
Red, Byers See Byers Red.
Red Canada (AKA Bristol, Canada Red, Nonsuch, Old Nonsuch, Steele's Red Winter, Steele's Winter Red, Steel's Red) This late, red dotted apple is juicy and crisp. An old New England variety, in 1822 it was called Nonsuch.
Red, Cannon See Cannon Pearmain.
Red Cheek See Maiden Blush.
Red Core See Surprise.
Red Fall Pippin See Red Winter Pearmain.
Red Gilliflower See Black Gilliflower.
Red Gravenstein See Banks.
Red Hughes
Red Jonathan
Red June See Carolina Red June.
Red Juneating See Early Strawberry.
Red Limbertwig
Red Neverfail See Red Neverfail.
Red Pippin, Cayuga See Twenty-Ounce.
Red Queen See Buckingham.
Red Rome See Rome Beauty.
Red Spy (AKA Red Northern Spy) See Northern Spy.
Red Strawberry See Early Strawberry.
Redstreak (AKA Maryland Red Streak, Red Streak)
Red Streak, Cayuga See Twenty-Ounce.
Red, Tennessee Early See Early Strawberry.
Red, Tommy See Thompkins County King.
Redtown Pippin
Red Warrior See Yates.
Red Willow Twig See Willow.
Red Winter Cluster See Kinnaird's Choice.
Red Winter Nonsuch See Hubbardston.
Red Winter Pearmain
Reinette Grenade Anglaise See Ribston.
Reinette, Lubsk See Lubsk Queen.
Reinette, Orleans See Orleans Reinette.
Reinette Simirenko Greenish-yellow with a faint pink sun side, the late-season variety keeps well. It has a wine-like taste, and is juicy, tender, and crisp. It was developed in the 19th century by a Russian horticulturist.
Rhode Island Greening (AKA Green Newtown Pippin) Greenish-yellow with little freckles, medium to large in size, the round Rhode Island Greening was known in 1650. It was Benjamin Franklin's favorite apple. This fall variety is firm, crisp, tart, and juicy. It can be enjoyed raw, cooked, or dried.
Ribston (AKA Reinette Grenade Anglaise, Ribston Pippin, Travers Pippin) Yellow, orange, red, russet — all these colors may cover the fall Ribston. It is ultra-sweet and rich to eat, hard and crispy, and nice-smelling. This all-purpose apple originated in Yorkshire, England, around 1700.
Ribston Pippin See Ribston.
Rock Remain See Ginet.
Rock Rimmon
Rome Beauty (AKA Red Rome, Rome) The Rome Beauty traces its origin back to Rome Township, Lawrence County, Ohio, where it appeared around 1816. The medium-to-large pretty red baking apple is slightly tart and juicy with a rather crisp texture. This fall variety is truly an all-purpose apple.
Rose Sweet See Sweet Winesap.
Ross Nonpareil Either Irish or perhaps French in origin, this small fall apple is golden-brown russet and red-striped. Extremely sweet and tart.
Round Cathead See Cat's Head.
Roxbury Russet (AKA Belpre Russet, Boston Russet, Howee's Russet, Leather Coat, Marietta Russet, Putnam Russet, Roxbury, Russet, Russet Golden, Shippen's Russet, Sylvan Russet, Warner Russet, Warren Russet) A high-sugar cider apple, this big fall apple is also good for fresh eating or cooking. It keeps well. The skin is greenish, bronze, and yellow-brown russet. It may be the oldest American apple, having originated in Roxbury, Massachusetts, before 1649.
Royal Janette See Ginet.
Royal Limbertwig
Royal Snow See Fameuse.
Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Belpre See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Boston See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Egremont See Egremont Russet.
Russet, Fall See Fall Russet.
Russet Golden See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Golden See Golden Russet.
Russet, Howee's See Howee's Russet.
Russet, Hunt See Hunt Russet.
Russet, Irish See Young.
Russet, Jung's Strain Golden See Jung's Strain Golden Russet.
Russet, Leather See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Marietta See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Putnam See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, St. Edmunds See St. Edmunds Pippin.
Russet, Shippen's See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Sylvan See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Warner See Roxbury Russet.
Russet, Warren See Roxbury Russet.
Russian Transparent See Yellow Transparent.
Rusty Coat (AKA Sweet Rusty Coat) A commendable choice for sauce or drying, this flavorful apple is golden with heavy russetting.
St. Edmunds Pippin (AKA St. Edmunds, St. Edmunds Russet) A lovely russet, this variety tastes similar to a Seckel pear, and is quite juicy. It originated in England at Bury St. Edmunds in 1870.
St. Johnsbury (AKA St. Johnsbury Sweet) An old Vermont apple, medium-sized, yellow skin touched with red, this has been a sweet favorite.
St. Lawrence From Canada, this is a big, red, high-quality fall apple.
Sam Young See Young.
Santa Clara King See Skinner's Seedling.
Scarlet Crofton A county Sligo, Ireland, apple, this smallish variety was introduced in 1819. It is warm yellow, flushed with scarlet, and netted and dotted with russet.
Schell (AKA Schull, Shell)
Scott Scott is a juicy, medium-sized fruit with a thin skin. It is yellow-green, has red stripes, and sometimes a bluish blush. It originated on the Scott Farm, Newport, Vermont, and was introduced by Dr. T. H. Hoskins.
Scott's Winter (AKA Scott's Red Winter, Wilcox's Winter)
Scribner (AKA Scribner's Spitzenberg, Scribner's Spitzenburgh, Seek-No-Further)
Scribner's Spitzenberg
Scribner's Spitzenburgh
Seedling, Bramley's See Bramley's Seedling.
Seedling, Coffey See Coffey Seedling.
Seedling, Cooke's See Cooke's Seedling.
Seedling, Lord's See Lord's Seedling.
Seek-No-Further See Cooper, Rambo, and Scribner.
Senator (AKA All-Over-Red Senator, Oliver, Oliver's Red) An old Arkansas variety, the skin of this apple is red over green, dotted with white or russet. It is a fall apple with juicy, tender, crisp, and zesty flesh.
Shannon Also see Ohio Pippin.
Sheepnose See Black Gilliflower, Bullock, Egg Top, Lady Finger, and Long Red Pearmain.
Sheepnose, Yellow See Yellow Bellflower.
Sheep's Nose See Bullock.
Sheep's Snout
Shell See Schell.
Shep See York Imperial.
Sherwood's Favorite See Chenango Strawberry.
Shippen's Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Shockley (AKA Dixie, Horse Bud, Waddell Hall
Shockley, Cantrell See Cantrell Shockley.
Shockley, Grizzle Strain See Grizzle Strain Shockley.
Signe Tillisch Soft yellow and blushing pink or orange skin cover this sweet and tender dessert apple — which is also superb for cooking. An early fall variety, this fragrant apple originated in Sweden. It was first described in print in 1889.
Sine Qua Non
Skinner's Seedling (AKA Santa Clara King, Skinner) A late summer variety, this great big, bold yellow apple has faint red stripes and white stars encircled with red. It is quite tender, juicy, and full of flavor. Good eaten raw, made into sauce, or used for cooking. It originated in California, and was introduced in 1887.
Slack-My-Girdle An English cider apple.
Smith's Cider (AKA Cider, Popular Bluff)
Smith Seedling
Smokehouse Smokehouse is reddish-yellow, flattish in shape, exceptionally juicy, tender, and firm, a fine all-purpose apple. It tastes like fresh cider. The original tree of this fall variety grew up beside the smokehouse of a farmer in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. It was introduced in 1837.
Snow See Fameuse.
Solomon See King Solomon.
Sommer Pearmaine An old European variety.
Somerset of Maine (AKA Somerset) Large bright-red-striped and splotched late summer dessert apple. The type originated in Mercer, Maine, and was first documented in 1849.
Sops of Wine (AKA Bell's Favorite, Hominy, Sops in Wine) Introduced in 1832, this late-summer English apple is noteworthy for desserts, cooking, and wine- and cider-making. A generous size, soft and juicy, this apple's skin is green-yellow, overshadowed with red and crimson markings.
Sparger (AKA Sparger Smokehouse)
Spitzenberg See Esopus Spitzenburg.
Spitzenberg, Esopus See Esopus Spitzenburg.
Spitzenburg See Esopus Spitzenburg.
Spitzenburg, Esopus See Esopus Spitzenburg.
Spitzenburg, Flat See Thompkins County King.
Spitzenburg, True See Esopus Spitzenburg.
Spy See Northern Spy.
Starkey Starkey is a big red-over-yellow fall variety. It originated on the farm of Moses Starkey in Vassalboro, and was introduced in 1880.
Starkspur Winesap
Stayman Winesap (AKA Stayman) Firm apples with a complex sweet-tart flavor, prized for cooking, eating, and storing. Their primary color is deep crimson, with touches of green. They are fall apples. They began as a seedling of Winesap; originated in Kansas; and were introduced in 1866.
Steele's Red Winter See Red Canada.
Steele's Winter Red
Steel's Red
Sterling Beauty See American Beauty.
Stoke Red
Stone Stone is similar to the Bethel. A large apple of very good quality, it originated in Bethel, Vermont. Also see American Pippin.
Strawberry See Late Strawberry.
Strawberry, Chenango See Chenango Strawberry.
Strawberry, Late See Late Strawberry.
Strawberry, Red See Early Strawberry.
Striped Ben Davis
Striped June See Bevan's Favorite and Margaret.
Striped, Ox Eye See Ox Eye Striped.
Summer Banana
Summer Champion
Summer King (AKA August, King, Kentucky Summer Queen
Summer Limbertwig
Summerour See Nickajack.
Summer Pearmain (AKA American, American Pearmain, American Summer Pearmain, Watkin's Early) The skin of this variety is green overlaid with drab red. It is esteemed because of its flavor. The variety was introduced into the U.S. in 1806.
Summer Pippin See Champlain, Fall Pippin, and Holland Pippin.
Summer Rambo Ripening in August, Summer Rambos make scrumptious pies and applesauce, and are especially suited to drying. The skin is yellow-green with a red blush. One of the oldest varieties, this apple originated in France. A big, red-striped juicy-good winner, this crisp late summer variety is fragrant and tangy. Long an American favorite, this apple originated near Amiens, France, in the 16th century.
Super Gold Patented by William Dalton of Hendersonville, North Carolina. (Information provided by Charlie Lytle, Sylva, North Carolina.)
Surprise (AKA Red Core, Yellow Surprise)
Susan's Spice
Sutton's Beauty This lively, red, shapely fruit is hard, crisp, and agreeably sweet. A fall apple, it was introduced in 1849.
Swayzie (AKA Swayzie Pomme Grise, Swazy) A Niagara, Canada, native, this conically-shaped fall variety was introduced in 1872. It is smallish, tender, and crisp, with warm-yellow skin highlighted with shades of russet.
Sweet, Bentley's See Bentley's Sweet.
Sweet Bough (AKA Bow, Bough, Early Bough, Early Bow, Large Yellow Bough, Sweet Harvest) Rather ample, green and juicy, this tender, crisp, honey-sweet variety ripens in the late summer. It was introduced in 1817.
Sweet Dixon
Sweetening A small, firm, golden mid-summer apple with rough, rusty-looking skin. This variety is perfect for applesauce because it is so sweet that no sugar need be added. The apple is shaped something like a York, with “flattened” sides. It is rather “scrubby”-looking, but has a wonderful flavor.
Sweet, Golden See Golden Sweet.
Sweet Harvest See Sweet Bough.
Sweet, Henry See Sweet Winesap.
Sweet, Hog See Hog Sweet.
Sweeting An old variety, possibly originating in Massachusetts.
Sweeting, Ziegler's See Ziegler's Sweeting.
Sweet June See Hightop Sweet.
Sweet, Ladies See Sweet Winesap.
Sweet, Pound See Pumpkin Sweet.
Sweet, Pumpkin See Pumpkin Sweet.
Sweet, Rose See Sweet Winesap.
Sweet Rusty Coat See Rusty Coat.
Sweet, St. Johnsbury See St. Johnsbury Sweet.
Sweet, Tolman See Tolman Sweet.
Sweet, Vermont See Pumpkin Sweet.
Sylvan Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Sweet Winesap (AKA Henry Sweet, Ladies Sweet, Rose Sweet)
Taliaferro This old variety produced wine-like cider.
Tallman Sweeting See Tolman Sweet.
Tenderskin (AKA Tender-Peeling)
Tennessee Early Red See Early Strawberry.
Terry Winter (AKA Terry, Winter Terry)
Thompkins County King (AKA Flat Spitzenburg, King, Thompkins King, Tommy Red, Tompkins County King) A New Jersey apple, this large-to-very-large fall variety is red over yellow. It is fragrant, juicy, crisp, tender, rather coarse, and slightly acidic. Excellent for dessert and cooking, especially apple butter; it also stores well.
Thompkins King See Thompkins County King.
Thunderbolt See Hoover.
Tinmouth (AKA Vermont Pippin) Tinmouth was once quite popular in southern Vermont. Valued because the tree was so productive and the fruit was of good size and quality, it originated, of course, in Tinmouth, Vermont. The fruit is yellowish-green with a bright pink blush. It ripens in autumn and early winter.
Tobias Tobias is a yellow apple with a slight blush, large and juicy. It was discovered in Grand Isle, Vermont, in the 1880's, and named for James Tobias, as were two others, the following Tobias Black and Tobias Pippin.
Tobias Black A dull red, large, fairly sweet fine-grained apple; a good keeper.
Tobias Pippin A crisp apple with thin yellow skin and a red blush (although it sometimes becomes russeted). It keeps well.
Tolman Sweet (AKA Brown's Golden Sweet, Tallman Sweeting, Tolman, Tolman's Sweeting) The Tolman Sweet is large or very large in size, tender and rich. The skin is light yellow, faintly russeted. This fall apple is good for cooking and cider-making. It originated in New York around 1750, and was introduced in 1804.
Tommy Red See Thompkins County King.
Tompkins County King See Thompkins County King.
Travers Pippin See Travers Pippin.
True Spitzenburg See Esopus Spitzenburg.
Tulpehocken See Fallawater.
Twenty Ounce (AKA Twenty-Ounce)
Twenty Ounce Pippin (AKA Aurora, Blessing, Cayuga Red Pippin, Cayuga Red Streak) A mammoth fall apple, this variety has a greenish background overlaid with wide red stripes. Outstanding for table use and cooking. It originated in upstate New York, and was introduced in 1840. Also see Twenty Ounce.
Ulster Seedling See Jonathan.
Vandervere (AKA Fall Vandevere, Gibbon's Smokehouse, Honeydew Grindstone, Ox Eye) A cider apple, this really hard, crisp fall variety gained the nickname Grindstone.
Vermont See Champlain.
Vermont Pippin See Tinmouth.
Vermont Sweet See Pumpkin Sweet.
Virginia Beauty (AKA Zach Red) Virginia Beauty apples are excellent dessert apples, and they store well. Their flavor varies from year to year, ranging from spicy to pear-like.
Virginia Cider (AKA Huge's Crab)
Virginia Greening (AKA Green Mountain Pippin, Ross Greening, Virginia Blush)
Virginia Pilot See Pilot.
Virginia Pippin See Ben Davis and Newtown Pippin.
Virginia Winesap (AKA Old Virginia Winesap) An old favorite, this medium-size, crisp, firm, red apple keeps well.
Waddell Hall See Shockley.
Wagener Wagener is a fast-growing variety, developed from seed planted in 1791, near Penn Yan, New York. These pink, red, and yellow “good keepers” ripen in the fall. They are medium-sized, very juicy, somewhat tart, rather firm, crisp, and tender, making them a delicious choice for eating fresh, making sauce, or cider.
Warner Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Warren Pippin See Ortley and Yellow Bellflower.
Warren Russet See Roxbury Russet.
Watauga See Hoover.
Watkin's Early See Summer Pearmain.
Watts See Peck's Pleasant.
Wealthy A yellow-red, medium-sized all-purpose fall apple with a mildly acid flavor. Very juicy and crisp. It originated in Excelsior, Minnesota, about 1860.
Welcome See Hoover.
Western Beauty (AKA Beauty of the West, Big Rambo, Ohio Beauty)
Westfield Seek-No-Further (AKA Westfield) A marvelous eating apple, this early winter variety hales from Westfield, Massachusetts. It is yellow with red and russet streaks. The variety was introduced in 1790.
White A. J. Downing wrote that White apples have a “flesh white, crisp, tender, sometimes almost melting, of mild agreeable flavor.” It originated in Virginia.
White Astrachan This medium-size apple has pale green skin, and sweet, tender, crisp, aromatic flesh. It was introduced in the U.S. in 1748 from either Russia or Sweden.
White Bausel
White Bellflower See Ortley and Yellow Bellflower.
White Detroit
White Joaneting See White Juneating.
White Juneating (AKA Carolina, Caroline, Gennetting, May, May Pippin, White Joaneting, Yellow May)
White Spanish Reinette (AKA Cobbett's Fall, Cobbett's Fall Pippin, Concombre Ancien)
White Winter Pearmain (AKA Cambellite, Griffin's Pearmain, White Pearmain, Winter Pearmain) This is the oldest known English apple, dating back to 1200. The late fall fruit is medium to big in size, and green-yellow with dots in color. Its flavor and texture make it a commendable all-purpose apple.
White Pearmain See White Winter Pearmain.
White Swan A cider apple.
William Dalton's Crackless Stayman Patented by William Dalton of Hendersonville, North Carolina. (Information provided by Charlie Lytle, Sylva, North Carolina.)
Winter Pearmain See White Winter Pearmain.
Whopper, Molly See Fallawater.
Wilcox's Winter See Scott's Winter.
William's Favorite
Willow (AKA James River, Red Willow Twig, Willow Twig) Likely a “native” of Ohio, Willow was first referenced in 1848. It is a large, crisp, very firm, fragrant, fairly tender variety with a “subacid flavor. A fall apple, it keeps extremely well. The skin is yellow-green, marked with shades of red and russet.
Willow Twig See Willow.
Wine (AKA Large Winter Red, Wine Apple) A large red apple that originated in Delaware, the Wine is good for all purposes. See also Fall Wine.
Wine, Fall See Fall Wine.
Winesap (AKA Holland's Red Winter, Old-Fashioned Winesap, Winter Winesap) Juicy Winesaps have a marvelous spicy, wine-like flavor. The juicy all-purpose, small-to-medium-sized fall apples are firm and crisp with reddish burgundy skin.
Winesap, Black See Kinnaird's Choice.
Winesap, Starkspur See Starkspur Winesap.
Winesap, Stayman See Stayman Winesap.
Winesap, Virginia See Virginia Winesap.
Wine, Sops of See Sops of Wine.
Winter Banana (AKA Banana, Flory) Indiana apple growers gave the Winter Banana its odd name in 1876. The yellow apples have a pinkish-red blush, a banana-like scent, and a crisp, tart flavor. A juicy, delicious dessert and cider apple, it ripens in the late fall.
Winter Genneting See Ginet.
Winter Horse See Nickajack.
Winter Jannetting See Ginet.
Winter Jon (AKA Sour Jon, Winter John)
Winter, Newell's See Newell's Winter.
Winter Pearmain See White Winter Pearmain.
Winter Terry See Terry Winter.
Winter Winesap See Winesap.
Wise See Court-Pendu Plat.
Wolf River This quite large, pale yellow-red fall apple from near Fremont, Wisconsin, is suitable for cooking, drying, and under the right growing conditions, it makes a good dessert apple.
Woodpecker See Baldwin.
Woolman's Long Pippin See Ortley.
Worcester Pearmain (AKA Worcester Pearman) Mild and juicy all-purpose red fall apple. Also popular in England.
Yankee Sweet
Yarlington Mill A cider apple; originated from seed in Yarlington in England.
Yates (AKA Red Warrior, Yates Winter) A little apple with bright red, dotted skin and spicy taste, this fall variety is juicy, fragrant, and firm. It originated in the state of Georgia in 1813.
Yates Winter See Yates.
Yearry See Benham.
Yellow Bellflower (AKA Fall Bellflower, Lady Washington, Warren Pippin, White Bellflower, White Detroit, Yellow Sheepnose) A fall variety, usually large, elongated, and lemon yellow with russet or white dots and perhaps a pink blush, the Yellow Bellflower is an excellent choice for pies, sauce, and fresh eating. The taste is sweet and not too acidic; the flesh is crisp. This aromatic apple originated in Burlington County, New Jersey.
Yellow Harvest See Early Harvest.
Yellow Horse See Horse.
Yellow Jannett See Ginet.
Yellow Jannette
Yellow June See Early Harvest.
Yellow Juneating See Early Harvest.
Yellow May See White Juneating.
Yellow Newtown See Canada Reinette and Newtown Pippin.
Yellow Newtown Pippin See Newtown Pippin.
Yellow Pippin See Newark Pippin and Ortley.
Yellow Sheepnose See Yellow Bellflower.
Yellow Surprise See Surprise.
Yellow Sweet June See Hightop Sweet.
Yellow Transparent (AKA Early Transparent, Russian Transparent) Transparents are medium in size, with fragrant, juicy, firm, tender, crisp flesh. Satisfactory eaten out of hand, they make marvelous pies, applesauce and apple butter and are first-rate fried. Our ancestors particularly appreciated Transparents because, being early summer apples, they provided the first fresh fruit in many months, and are also disease resistant. The variety originated in Russia, and was introduced in 1870.
York See York Imperial.
York Imperial (AKA Johnson's Fine Winter, Shep, York) Before refrigeration, York Imperial was prized by farmers because it overwinters well in a root cellar, and actually tastes far better two months after picking. This firm, asymetrical yellow-red apple ripens in October, and is tasty and mildly tart. York Imperial was first cultivated near York, Pennsylvania in 1830.
Young (AKA Irish Russet, Sam Young) This ancient Irish apple was introduced to the U.S. in 1820. It is greenish and russet, and later yellow marked with red dots and stripes.
Zach Red See Virginia Beauty.
Ziegler's Sweeting An old Southern apple, now thought to be extinct.
Packing Virginia apples, ca. 1938

This image is from the 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, compiled by the Virginia State Chamber of Commerce. It is captioned, “Finishing the fancy apple pack. No trouble is spared to see that Virginia's customers get the best.”

Virginia apple orchard, ca. 1938

This image of a Virginia apple orchard is from the Library of Virginia's 1939 World's Fair Photograph Collection, compiled by the Virginia State Chamber of Commerce. It is captioned, “A great festival — in joy at the promise of a bountiful harvest, welcomes the coming of the apple blossoms at Winchester annually.“